2013-02-17
Memorial Book » Repressed Geology
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The Editor of Geological Map of the Asian Arctic

An unspoken history that
we did not learn ...

Geodynamic Globe - North Pole by GIS Department RAS - http://www.sgm.ru
Geodynamic Globe - North Pole
GIS Department RAS

  • STAMPEDE TO THE GEOLOGICAL GULAG
  • GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL TRIALS
  • REPRESSED GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
  • RESEARCH BY WRECKER-GEOSCIENTISTS
  • OGPU GEOLOGICAL EXPEDITIONS AND MINES
  • ENISEYSTROY OF MVD OF THE USSR
  • SHONTYMSKY MINES - Komi Republic
  • TIGHT NECKLACES FOR GEOLOGICAL GIRLS
  • AWARDS FOR THE RESEARCH OF ARCTIC
  •     · Researchers of the Soviet Arctic in the 20-70s
        · Soviet coal mining on Svalbard in the 20-ies
        · Editor of the Asian Arctic Geological Map, 1937
        · Hydrographic Office of the NSRA in the 1948
        · Soviets launched station at the South Pole, 1956
        · Russia launched Arctic Conference & Exhibition
        · Putin in the Arctic - Franz Josef Land, 2010

    incomplete

  • GULAG'S UPRISINGS AFTER STALIN'S DEATH
  • THE BEST FRIENDS OF PROLETARIAT


  • Please do not ever copy any of the G-to-G web-pages content. The content of G-to-G web-pages changes any time and constantly. Link to this pages instead. Visitors are solely responsible for use of the G-to-G web-pages content.


     

    Researchers of the Soviet Arctic in the 20-70s and more ...

    Arctic resources are becoming an integral part of Soviet industry.
    This was true before the war of chemicals from the Kol'ski Poluostrov.
    During the war the Chaunskaya Guba area on the northeastern Siberian
    coast became the most important tin producer in the U.S.S.R.
    William Mandel, "Arctic" VOL. 3, NO. I

    The northernmost point of Eurasia
    The northernmost point of Eurasia

    courtesy Nikolai Rzhevskij
    http://www.rzhevsky.net

    in that section collected materials
    from several sources (rus)
    G-to-G translated extracts:

    Zinovy Kanevsky
    Mysteries and tragedies of the Arctic
    M., KNOWLEDGE, 1991
    (excerpts)

    Nikolai Rzhevskij
    International Federation of Russian writers
    http://www.rzhevsky.net/

    V.V. Frolov
    SOVIET ARCTIC RESEARCH AT THE PRESENT STAGE
    Problems of the Arctic, no.2, 1957, p. 5-18

    © VNIIOkeangeologiya
    team of authors:
    On the way to the subsoil of the Arctic..
    Issue 1. Ministry Natural Resources RF
    Institute Geology and Mineral Resources of Oceans
    behalf I.S. Gramberg. St. Petersburg, 2003

    on the photograph on the right - the Franz Josef Land, Rudolf Island, from which sent Papanin's expedition to SP-1. On the island there was a polar station, to which the author - Nikolai Rzhevskij arrived in the geophysical team by helicopter. At the station there was a fire, and station did not come to radio communication a few days. The picture shows a cross set at the most extreme promontory of the island. There is the northernmost point of Eurasia. What does the cross mean - author does not know, because has no time.

    Deryugin K.K. "The Soviet oceanographic expeditions"
    Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1968 - pp. 235
    "GeoMan.ru: Библиотека по географии"


    SOME NOTES ON THE SOVIET ARCTIC DURING THE PAST DECADE
    by William Mandel (PDF http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca)


    Sent: Thursday, April 12, 2012 9:33 AM
    To: memorial@g-to-g.com
    Subject: question

    Hello! Came across on the Internet to your website. I very liked it and engrossed in it, thank you. ...

    My dad, Eugene A. Milovidov, ... worked in the Research Institute of Geology of the Arctic.

    I know that he was in the Arctic Geological Expedition from 1953 to early 1957, a a senior mechanic of the thematic parties (as recorded in his employment book, and I have lots of pictures). He then worked as a mechanic on an icebreaker in the Arctic.

    Tell me please, in which the archives I could gather more detailed information about his father during this period of his life.

    Thank you in advance,
    Yours faithfully, M.R.
    Estonia


    From: Memorial G-to-G
    Sent: Thursday, April 12, 2012 8:39 PM
    Subject: Re: question

    Good day ...!

    1. The first archive is the Human Resources Department at the Institute. You need to contact with the HR at first.

    2. In addition, I highly recommend to go to the forum www.polarpost.ru - it is a very active and serious forum, I think they will help.

    http://www.polarpost.ru/

    If you have any questions, please contact us.

    Thank you for your kind words about the website.

    Sincerely,
    Svetlana Tikhomirova, PhD,
    author of the website g-to-g.com


    Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, Edward visited the Research Institute of Arctic and Antarctic in Leningrad during the stay in the USSR. St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1975

    Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, Edward
    visited the Research Institute of Arctic and Antarctic in Leningrad
    during the stay in the USSR.
    St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1975

    РИА НОВОСТИ
    http://visualrian.ru


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    http://www.gpavet.narod.ru/reference.htm

    Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1919. Vol.60. No 1. P.61-63.

    Admiral Sir Edward Inglefield, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1894. Vol. IV. No 5. P.464.

    Admiral Sir George H. Richards, K.C.B., F.R.S. (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1897. Vol. IX. No 1. P.97-98.


    Northern Land or Severnaya Zemlya
    (Russian: Се́верная Земля́, Northern Land)
    is an archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Geological Map of the Northern Land.

    Geological Map of the Northern Land
    composed by B.H. Egizarov, cartographer - Z.S. Baikova (1967)
    Geology of the USSR
    Soviet Arctic Islands
    Volume XXVI

    Editor: A.V. Sidorenko (rus),
    USSR Ministry of Geology, Institute of Geology of the Arctic
    Publisher: Nedra, Moscow
    1970

    The monography contains a description of the
    geological structure of the Soviet Arctic Islands.
    New data on geology, tectonics and geomorphology of the islands
    and the Arctic Basin. The main results of the study of geology
    of the Arctic Ocean floor. The final chapter discusses the main stages of
    geological history of the islands of the Soviet Arctic.


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    Admiral Sir R. Vesey Hamilton (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1912. Vol. XL. No 5. P.570-572.

    American Arctic Expedition // The Geographical Journal. 1912. Vol.XXXIX. No 4. P.402.

    Arctic Exploring Expeditions // The Geographical Journal. 1893. Vol. II. No 5. P.463.

    Armstrong T. Place-names in the Soviet Arctic // The Polar record. 1950. V.5. №39. P.408-426.

    Baron Oscar Dickson (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1897. Vol. X. No 1. P.106.

    Barr W. Operation «Wunderland»: Admiral Scheer in the Kara Sea, August 1942 // The Polar record. 1975. V.17. No 110. P.461-472.

    Barr W. Aleksandr Vasil’evich Kolchak: Arctic scientist and explorer // The Polar record. 1981. V.20. №129. P.507-524.

    Barr W. Franklin in Siberia? – Lieutenant Bedford Pim’s proposal to search the Arctic coast of Siberia, 1851-52 //Arctic. 1992. V.45. No.1. P.36-46.


    Novaya Zemlya (Russian: Но́вая Земля́, lit. New Land),
    also known in Dutch as Nova Zembla and in Norwegian as Gåselandet
    (lit. the Goose Land), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in the north of Russia .
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Geological Map of the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Vaigach, and Kolguyev.

    Geological Map of the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Vaigach, and Kolguyev
    composed by B.S. Romanovich, cartographer - Z.S. Baikova (1967)
    Geology of the USSR
    Soviet Arctic Islands
    Volume XXVI

    Editor: A.V. Sidorenko (rus),
    USSR Ministry of Geology, Institute of Geology of the Arctic
    Publisher: Nedra, Moscow
    1970

    The monography contains a description of the
    geological structure of the Soviet Arctic Islands.
    New data on geology, tectonics and geomorphology of the islands
    and the Arctic Basin. The main results of the study of geology
    of the Arctic Ocean floor. The final chapter discusses the main stages of
    geological history of the islands of the Soviet Arctic.


    The Russians knew of Novaya Zemlya from the 11th century, when hunters from Novgorod visited the area. For western Europeans, the search for the Northeast passage in the 16th century led to its exploration. Vaygach Island (Russian: Вайга́ч) is an island in the Arctic Sea between the Pechora Sea and the Kara Sea.

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    Barr W. The career and disappearance of Hans K.E. Kruger, Arctic geologist, 1886-1930 // Polar Record. 1993. V.29(171). P.277-304.

    Barr W. Richard Cyriax’s note concerning Thomas Simpson’s claim of having discovered the Northwest Passage // Polar Record. 2000. Vol 36(197). P.113-116.

    Brice A. M. The Jackson-Harmsworth Polar Expedition // The Geographical Journal. 1896. Vol. VIII. No 6. P.543-566.

    Bruyns Willem F.J. Morzer Photography in the Arctic, 1876-84: the work of W.J.A. Grant // Polar Record. 2003. Vol 39(209). P.123-130.

    Burn C.R. After whom is Herschel island is named? // Arctic. 2009. Vol. 62. No 3. P.317-323.

    Capelotti P. J. Benjamin Leigh Smith’s first Arctic expedition: Svalbard, 1871 // Polar Record. 2006. V.42. № 220. P. 1-14.

    Captain Albert Borlase Armitage (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1944. Vol. CIV. Nos 1, 2. P.69-70.

    Captain Hjalmar Johansen (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1913. Vol. XLI. No 2. P.175.

    Captain Joseph Wiggins (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1905. Vol. XXVI. No 4. P.461-462.


    Medal in honor of Roald Amundsen, a Norwegian polar explorer. Museum of Arctic and Antarctic Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of the Ministry of Marine Fleet of the USSR. St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1973

    Medal in honor of Roald Amundsen,
    a Norwegian polar explorer.

    Museum of Arctic and Antarctic of the
    Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the
    Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of the
    Ministry of of Navy of the USSR.
    St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1973

    РИА НОВОСТИ
    http://visualrian.ru


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    Cavell J. The hidden crime of Dr. Richardson // Polar record. 2007. V. 43. No 225. P.155-164.

    Chafe E. F. The Voyage of The «Karluk», And Its Tragic Ending // The Geographical Journal. 1918. Vol. LI No 5. P.307-315.

    The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York and London, Columbia University Press, 1963. 2388 p.

    Cooke A. The autobiography of Dr John Ray (1813-1893): a preliminary note // Polar record. 1968. V.14. No 89. P.173-177.

    Cook A., Holland C. Chronological list expeditions and historical events in Northern Canada. VI. 1821-45. // Polar record. 1972. V.16. No 100. P.41-61.

    Cook A., Holland C. Chronological list expeditions and historical events in Northern Canada. VII. 1846-54. // Polar record. 1972. V.16. No 101. P.235-260.

    Cook A., Holland C. Chronological list expeditions and historical events in Northern Canada. VIII. 1853-80. // Polar record. 1972. V.16. No 102. P.383-409.

    Cook A., Holland C. Chronological list expeditions and historical events in Northern Canada. VII. 1881-96. // Polar record. 1973. V.16. No 103. P.559-577.

    Cook A., Holland C. Chronological list expeditions and historical events in Northern Canada. VII. 1896-1902. // Polar record. 1973. V.16. No 104. P.707-722.


    Tobacco pipe of Roald Amundsen, a Norwegian polar explorer. Museum of Arctic and Antarctic Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of the Ministry of Marine Fleet of the USSR. St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1973

    Tobacco pipe of Roald Amundsen,
    a Norwegian polar explorer.

    Museum of Arctic and Antarctic of the
    Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the
    Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of the
    Ministry of of Navy of the USSR.
    St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1973

    РИА НОВОСТИ
    http://visualrian.ru


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    Credland A.G. Benjamin Leigh Smith: a forgotten pioneer // Polar record. 1980. Vol 20. No 125. P.127-145.

    Cromack T., Riffenburgh B. William Robertson’s account of Benjamin Leigh Smith’s second expedition to Franz Josef Land in Eira // Polar Record. 1990. V. 36. No 199. P.305-316.

    Cruwys L. Henry Grinnell and American Franklin searches // Polar Record. 1990. 26(158). P.211-216.

    Cruwys L. Profile: Henry Grinnell // Polar Record. 1991. V.27(161). P.115-119.

    Cruwys L. Edvin Jesse De Haveh: the first US Arctic explorer // Polar Record. 1992. V.28(166). P.205-212.

    Cvijic I. Sir John Scott Keltie (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1927. Vol. LXIX. No 2.

    Cyriax R. J., Wordie J. M. Centenary of the sailing of sir John Franklin’s with the Erebus and Terror // The Geographical Journal. 1945. Vol. CVI. No 5,6. P.170-197.

    Dainelli G. The Geographical Work of H.R.H. The Late Duke of The Abruzzi // The Geographical Journal. 1933. Vol. LXXXII. No 1. P.1-15.

    Deacon M., Savours A. Sir George Strong Nares (1831-1915) // Polar record. 1976. V.18. No 113. P.127-141.

    Death of Sir Clements Markham // The Geographical Journal. 1919. Vol. XLVII. No 3. P.161-176.

    The Encyclopedia Americana. New York, Chicago, Washington, 1963.

    Fiala A. Fighting the Polar Ice. New York, 1907. 296 p.

    General Tillo (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1900. Vol. XV. No 2. P.185-186.

    George Borup (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1912. Vol. XXXIX. No 6. P.618.

    Goldie G. T. Lord Aberdare (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1895. Vol. V. No 4. P.388-390.

    Griffiths G. James Rennell and British Arctic expedition, 1818-1829 // Polar record. 1993. V.29. No 170. P. 189-196.


    pocket watches of Roald Amundsen, a Norwegian polar explorer. Museum of Arctic and Antarctic Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of the Ministry of Marine Fleet of the USSR. St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1973

    pocket watches of Roald Amundsen,
    a Norwegian polar explorer.

    Museum of Arctic and Antarctic of the
    Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the
    Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of the
    Ministry of of Navy of the USSR.
    St. Petersburg, USSR, 01/01/1973

    РИА НОВОСТИ
    http://visualrian.ru


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    Hattersley-Smith G. The British Arctic expedition, 1875-76 // Polar record. 1976. V.18. No 113. P. 117-126.

    Hinchliffe I. Frederik Hjalmar Johansen, Polar explorer 1867-1913. // Polar Record. 1983. V.21(135). P.591-595.

    Holland C. A. William Penny, 1809-92: Arctic Waling Master // Polar record. 1970. V.15. No 94. P. 25-43.

    Holland C. A. The Arctic Committee of 1851: a Background Study (part I) // Polar record. 1980. V.20. No 125. P. 105-118.

    Holland C. A. The Arctic Committee of 1851: a Background Study (part II) // Polar record. 1980. V.20. No 124. P. 3-17.

    Mr. Jackson’s Expedition to the Yalmal Peninsula // The Geographical Journal. 1893. Vol. II. No 5. P.463.

    Jackson F. G. Three Years’ Exploration in Franz Josef Land // The Geographical Journal. 1898. Vol. XI. No 2. P.113-138.

    Jackson F. G. A Thousand Days in the Arctic. London and New York, 1899. V.I. 551 p., V.II. 580 p.

    John Barrow (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1899. Vol. XIII. No 1. P.76-77.

    Dr. John Rae, F.R.S. (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1893. Vol. II. No 3. P.275-276.

    Julius von Payer (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1915. Vol. XLVI. No 4. P.322.

    Lloud_Jones R. The men who sailed with Franklin // Polar Record. 2005. V.41 (219). P. 311-318.

    Markham C. R. The Voyage of the «Eira» and Mr. Leigh Smith’s Arctic Discoveries // Proceedings of the Royal Geogr. Society. 1881. №3. P.129-150.

    Markham C. R. Sir Erasmus Ommanney and Sir James Donnet (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1905. Vol. XXV. No 2. P.221-225.

    Markham C. R. Admiral Sir Leopold M’Clintock, K.C.B. // The Geographical Journal. 1908. Vol. XXXI. No 1. P.1-11.

    Markham C. R. Dr. Nansen on the Polar Exploration // The Geographical Journal. 1912. Vol. XXXIX. No 1. P.26-30.

    Markham C. R. Sir Allen Young // The Geographical Journal. 1916. Vol. XLVII. No 1. P. 34-41.

    McClintock`s ship "Fox" at Godhavn // The Geographical Journal. 1917. Vol. L. No 4. P.305-306.

    Mill H. R. Dr. Georg von Neumayer (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1909. Vol. XXXIV. No 4. P. 460-462.

    Mill H. R. The Record of the Royal Geographical Society. London. RGS. 1930. 288 c.

    Professor H. Mohn (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1917. Vol. XLIX. No 3. P. 239.

    The Nansen Meeting in the Albert Hall // The Geographical Journal. 1897. Vol. IX. No 3. P. 249-256.

    Prof. Nathorst (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1921. Vol. LVIII. No 1. P. 75.

    Neale W. H. Benjamin Leigh Smith (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1913. Vol. XLI. No IV. P.396-397.

    Lord Northbrook (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1905. Vol. XXV. No 1. P.100-101.

    The New Century Cyclopedia of Names. New York, 1954.


    геологи изучают керн хребта Ломоносова со стороны Канады

    геологи изучают керн хребта Ломоносова со стороны Канады

    William F. Althoff
    DRIFT STATION
    Arctic Outposts of Superpower Science

    Potomac Books, Inc.
    Washington, D.C. 2007

    Global Change: Advancing the Case
    p. 211


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    Philippow A. M. Polarreisen des russischen Malers Borissow // Petermanns Geogr. Mitteilungen. 1903. Heft X. S.217-219.

    Powell B. D. The memorials on Beechey Island, Nunavut, Canada // Polar record. 2006. V.42. No 223. P. 325-333.

    Pullen T. C. Transits of the Northwest Passage, 1906-1990 // Polar Record. 1991.V.22. №163. P. 365-367.

    Ravenstein E. G. Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1905. Vol. XXVI. No 6. P.679-682.

    Rear-Admiral Melville (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1916. Vol. XLVI. No 2. P.149.

    Dr. Reginald Koettlitz (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1916. Vol. XLVI. No 2. P.149.

    Riffenburgh B. James Gordon Bennett, the New York Herald and the Arctic // Polar record. 1991. V.27. No 160. P. 9-16.

    Ross W.Gillies False leads in the Franklin search. // Polar Record. 2003. V.39(209). P.131-160.

    Ross W. Gillies The Arctic Council of 1851: facts or fancy // Polar Records. 2004. No 40 (213). P.135-141.

    Rowley G. Rear-admiral Sir John Ross,RN, 1777-1856: Archival material in the Scott polar research institute. // Polar Record. 1970. V.15. N94. P.61-62.

    Savitt R., Ludecke C. Legacies of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition, 1894-1897. // Polar Record. 2007. V.43(224). P.55-66.

    Scott Keltie J. Death of Sir Clements Markham // The Geographical Journal. 1916. Vol. XLVII. No 3. P. 161-176.

    Second Voyage of the «Eira» to Franz-Josef Land // Proceedings of the Royal Geogr. Society. 1883. Vol.V. P.204-228.

    Sir Henry William Gore-Booth, Bart (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1900. Vol. XV. No 3. P. 290.

    Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1912. Vol. XXXIX. No 2. P.166-168.

    Sir John Scott Keltie (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1927. Vol. LXIX. No 3. P.281-287.

    Smith M. Captain Francis Crozier: Last man standing? Cork, Ireland: The Collins Press, 2006. 242 p.

    Speak P. William Speirs Bruce: Scottish nationalist and polar explorer // Polar Record. 1992. V.28(167). P.285-292.

    Stefansson V. Unsolved Mysteries of Arctic. New York. 1939. 381 c.

    Stone I. R. Profile: Edward Sabin, Polar scientist 1788-1883 // Polar record. 1984. V.22. No 138. P. 305-309.

    Stone Ian R. The Arctic portraits of Stephen Pearce // Polar Record. 1988. V.24(148). P.55-58.

    Tammiksaar E. Mathias von Hedenstrom: new lands appear on the map of the northern coast of Siberia // Polar Record. 2001.V.37. No 200. P. 67-69.

    Tammiksaar E. Alexander von Middendorf and his expedition to Siberia (1842-1845) // Polar record. 2007. V.43. No 226. P. 193-216.

    Transehe Nicholas Alexander (Obituary) // The Polar Record. 1962. Vol. 11. No 70. P.113.

    Vice-Admiral Sir George Strong Nares, K.C.B., F.R.S. (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1915. Vol. XLV. No 3. P. 255-257.

    Walton D.W.H. Profile: Albert Borlase Armitage // Polar Record. 1985. V.22(140). P.511-518.

    The Wellman Polar Expedition // The Geographical Journal. 1900. Vol. XV. No 2. P. 184.

    William Henry Neale (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1939. Vol. XCIV. No 3. P.260-261.

    William Speirs Bruce (Obituary) // The Geographical Journal. 1921. Vol. LVIII. No 6. P.468-470.

    Worsley F. A. Under Sail in the Frozen North. London. 1927. 299 p.

    The Ziegler Polar Expedition 1903-1905 Anthony Fiala commander. Scientific Results. Washington. 1907. 631 p.


    Austro-Hungarian Polar Expedition in 1871-1874, Publisher Glavsevmorput - Lenigrad, 1935

    Austro-Hungarian Polar Expedition
    1871-1874

    Publisher Glavsevmorput',
    Lenigrad, 1935


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    On the first half of the 19th century, the British expeditions (John Ross, James Ross, W. Parry, and others) were searching for the North-West passage in the straits Canadian Arctic archipelago.

    At the end of 19th century, the Avstro-Hungarian expedition head by J. Payer and K. Baypreht (1871-1874) discovered the Franz Josef Land, a U.S. expedition of J. De-Long (1879-1881) - the island named after him.

    B 1878-1879 Swedish researcher, Hordensheld on the ship "Bega" was the first who passed through the North-East passage. B 1893-1896 Norwegian geographer F. Hansen on the constructing own's ship "Fram" was the first who crossed the Arctic basin during the drift of the New Siberian Islands to Spitsbergen.

    B 1899 Russian Admiral Makarov built the first icebreaker and it has reached 81V ° 28 'c. sh. north of Svalbard. The development of marine industries, especially in the Barents Sea, led to the organization the scientific-trade expedition aboard the "Saint Andrew" under the direction Knipovich in the Murmansk. In 1899, Admiral Makarov in unexplored areas of the Arctic Ocean, near the Svalbard archipelago, made a voyage on the icebreaker "Ermak" and made teh first hydrological works here.

    Almost until the end of the XIX century, all the oceanographic expeditions in various seas and oceans were made by Russia, as well as by other countries, on one's own.

    The first serious attempt to establish one joint International Expedition was made in 1879, when the Austrian Navy lieutenant K. Baypreht, who discovered the Franz Josef Land, introduced to the International Meteorological Committee in Rome program of the first International Polar Expedition.


    Map of the Arctic. The most important expeditions in the Arctic in the 20 century

    Map of the Arctic. The most important expeditions in the Arctic in the 20 century

    picture from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE), 1970–1977
    There were three GSE editions. The first edition of 65 volumes (65,000 entries,
    plus a supplementary volume about the Soviet Union) was published during 1926–1947.
    The second edition of 50 volumes (100,000 entries, plus a supplementary volume)
    was published in 1950–1958. The third edition of 1970–1977 contains 30 volumes
    (100,000 entries, plus an index volume issued in 1981. The GSE contents articles about
    the Soviet Union and all countries of the world

    many people contributed to field studies and processing of a vast amount of
    geodata for the Russian Far East, Eastern and Western Siberia, Caucasia, Kazakhstan...


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    The Commission endorsed the Veypreht's plan and requested preparation of the expedition to the International Polar Conference, which carried out of work in 1879 in Hamburg, in 1880 in Bern and in 1881 in St. Petersburg.

    The first International Polar expedition was launched only in 1882 - 1883, respectively. The International Polar Conference was headed by Director of the Central Physical Observatory, G.I. Wild. Russian geophysicists took an active part in the First International Polar Year.

    In the first International Polar Year, which took place in 1882-1883's, attended by 12 countries: Russia, France, England, Germany, USA, Canada, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Austria. Participating countries organized 13 geophysical stations in the Arctic and two in Antarctica. Two stations belonged to Russia: a geophysical station (Sagastyr) located at the mouth of the Lena River, the other - in Small Karmakuly (island of Novaya Zemlya).


    Dmitry and Svetlana Medvedev, together with the Queen of Denmark and Prince Consort Henrik came to the opening of the Danish-Russian exhibition «Arctic» at the Moscow House of Photography.

    Dmitry and Svetlana Medvedev,
    together with the Queen of Denmark and Prince Consort Henrik
    came to the opening of the Danish-Russian exhibition «Arctic»
    at the Moscow House of Photography.
    2011

    http://corolevstvomoe.blogspot.com


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    In the early 20th century sea Evrayziysky sub-basin of the Arctic Ocean to the coast and islands have been studied Russian expeditions Eduard Toll, V. Rusanov, G. Brusilov, G. Cedov ...

    Shortly before the World War I, on the initiative of A.A. Kaminsky, and I.B. Spindler, Department of Trade Ports at the Russian Ministry of Trade and Industry has created its own Hydro-Meteorological Service, which in the years 1911-1913 organized several central stations in the cities of Makhachkala, Theodosia and Arkhangelsk.

    But despite the efforts of individual organizations and scientists to create a broad network of marine hydrometeorological stations and meteorological centers to the beginning of World War II was not possible - the number of stations on all the seas barely reached 90.


    Expeditions

    Expeditions Roald Amundsen in Arctic.
    picture from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 1970–1977


    [TOP]

    In March 10, 1921, Lenin signed a Decree of People's Commissars on the establishment of the country's first Floating Marine Scientific Institute (Plavmornina). The Lenin's decree was aimed at organizing a comprehensive and systematic study of the northern seas, islands, and coasts, on the development of marine hydrometeorology and use of natural marine resources.

    In addition, there was a need in the decree inseparable connection of research in the Arctic with the practical arrangements for the development of the North and with the practical tasks of the first in the Soviet Union, the marine scientific institutions.


    Дерюгин Константин Константинович - СОВЕТСКИЕ ОКЕАНОГРАФИЧЕСКИЕ ЭКСПЕДИЦИИ

    Decree № 644 п, 10.III.1921


    [TOP]

    In June 21, 1921, Lenin signed a decree "On Organization of the Meteorological Service of the RSFSR," which was of great importance for the development of the meteorological network as a whole, and for the development of marine hydrometeorological stations in Soviet Russia.


    The Memorial. At this point in 1926, the Norwegian-American-Italian expedition led by Roald Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth and Umberto Nobile made ​​the first nonstop flight transarctic over the North Pole to Alaska. In 1928, Italian Umberto Nobile expedition on the airship «Italia» went to the North Pole. Photo by V. Chistyakov 01.11.1988

    The Memorial.
    At this point in 1926,
    the Norwegian-American-Italian expedition
    led by Roald Amundsen, Lincoln Ellsworth and Umberto Nobile
    made ​​the first nonstop flight transarctic
    over the North Pole to Alaska.
    In 1928, Italian Umberto Nobile expedition
    on the airship "Italia" went to the North Pole.

    photo by V. Chistyakov
    01.11.1988

    РИА НОВОСТИ - http://visualrian.ru


    [TOP]

    On the Lenin's order the Supreme Economic Council also established the Northern Scientific-Exploring Expedition (Glavsevmorput or GUSMP, Russian acronym for Main Administration of the Northern Sea Route, a Soviet agency for exploiting resources across the far north, for coordination of supplies and transport), which in 1925 was transformed into the Institute for the Study of the North.

    In the first years of its existence the institute is mainly engaged in the study of the Arctic in the physical-geographical, geological and fisheries capability.

    In 1930, the Institute for the Study of the North was transformed into the All-Union Arctic Institute (All-Union Arctic Institute - VAI, the current Arctic and Antarctic Institute in Leningrad), which is assigned to coordinate and implement all scientific research in the Arctic.

    Institute conducted an extensive geological exploration works, in particular discovered of huge deposits of minerals in some parts of the Far North of Soviet Russia.


    Unfortunatly Russia has failed to take andvantage of
    this unique oportunity to attract foregin capital.
    Couturier Gilles, Councelor, Commercial
    Embassay of Canada in Russia, 2000

    Сonquest of the Arctic - first flights over the North Pole - Pocket Atlas of the Soviet Union - 1939

    "Сonquest of the Arctic"
    first flights over the North Pole by Soviet pilots
    Pocket Atlas of the Soviet Union
    1939


    [TOP]

    "... For the first time I had to go through this feeling more than thirty years ago. It began the International Geophysical Year.

    A group of young geographers and glaciologists was going to go to the New Earth. We had to spend a two-year hibernation in the gulf Russian Harbor (Russian: Русская Гавань).

    Getting ready for hard work, we carefully studied all of the available literature on this region. It has been repeatedly mentioned M.M. Ermolaev, who spent the winter just in those parts exactly a quarter century before us, in 1932-1933.

    Have no idea, whether he was alive, we randomly (in Leningrad, the Arctic Institute) sent a letter with many questions and almost immediately got an answer beginning with the words: Dear friends, you wrote to me on the institution in which I am not working now seventeen years ...


    UNEXPLORED ARCTIC

    UNEXPLORED ARCTIC

    http://www.varg.wolfdog.org/xlq-map-of-arctic-in-1950.phtml


    [TOP]

    Knowing already from the materials of just ended XX Congress of the mass repressions of the thirties, we are easily calculated for these seventeen years of life and the fate of
    Mikhael Mikhailovich Ermolaev, and later learned the details from him.

    Ermolaev was one of the first and most talented students of professor R.L. Samoilovich, the outstanding Soviet polar explorer, organizer of the Arctic Institute, a member and leader of the twenty-one expeditions to the Far North, among which was the legendary expedition of the icebreaker "Krasin" to save Nobile in 1928.

    Rudolf Samoilovich was acquainted with Nikolai Petrovich Gorbunov.

    Academician Nikolai Gorbunov, Secretary of People's Commissars, Lenin's closest people, actively helped with the organization of the Soviet Polar Science.

    Samoilovich in 1920 created the Northern Research and Trade Expedition with the direct participation of Nikolai Gorbunov.

    In August 1987, all of the USSR newspapers, radio and television reported of beginning of oil production off the coast of Kolguyev (Russian: Колгуев) in the Barents Sea, namely, where a half-century before conducted the first study were young Arctic marine geologists, among whom was Mikhael Ermolaev.


    caravan of ships on the Northern Sea route

    caravan of ships on the Northern Sea route

    picture from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE), 1970–1977


    [TOP]

    Mikhael Ermolaev, a fifteen-year teenager, came in 1920 in the Northern Research and Trade Expedition (Северная научно-промысловая экспедиция) led by Samoilovich, from which grew the Arctic Institute, and held side by side with Rudolf Lazarevich no than one year in travels to the Arctic Ocean, its islands and archipelagoes.

    Mikhael had not yet turned thirty, but it was believed he became already a scientists in several scientific disciplines - geography and geology, glaciology and Permafrost, oceanography and geochemistry.

    He is one of the first began to study the geology of the coast, the shelf and the depths of the Arctic Ocean. It was he who introduced the concept permafrostology the term "thermokarst", the first to deal seriously with the glaciers of the Arctic.

    But in 1938 it all was stopped. After a hard winter in the ice of the Central Arctic the next expedition of R.L. Samoilovich returned at home, and then it began ...

    helicopter landing on the board of vessel during gravimetric survey in the Arctic&
    helicopter landing
    on the board of vessel during
    gravimetric survey in the Arctic

    One Hundred Years of GeoDynasty

    courtesy N.N. Rzhevskij - geophysicist

    In Kislovodsk health resort has been arrested the head of the expedition, in Leningrad and Moscow were put to jail his companions.

    During the search in Ermolaev's apartment it has been seizured and destroyed completed doctoral dissertation "Glaciation of the New Earth." From the text of dissertation miraculously survived fifteen separate pages ...

    Ermolaev was subtly questioned in Leningrad and Moscow. In questioning himself Goglidze took a part, one of Beria's henchmen (he was shot much later, with the rank of Colonel-General, together with his master).

    "He then offered me a tea and cookies, and then whip lashed across the face ..." - recalled Mikhael.

    Someone needed in materials, compromising of geologists - academician Vladimir Afanasievich Obruchev and his three sons-geologists.

    Mikhael flatly refused to testify against geologists - Obruchev and and his sons. Enraged by his tenacity Goglidze shouted: You will, eventually, provide plausible evidence??

    "Plausible - I will not. Just tell the truth ... "- replied Ermolaev.

    Beaten in the blood, tortured with non-stop interrogations, polar explorer shouted in the face of Goglidze: Why do you torture people? What do you want? If you need in a free labor, I am ready to go anywhere and do anything. But only act like a human, do not force people to slander themselves and disseminate lies of others. Whois benefit from this monstrous extravaganza!?

    At the moment the jailer was dumbfounded, but he did not beat of a prisoner at this time: You are right, what is happening in the country, the ordinary mind can not understand. And do not try. Sign the charges. It will be better for you...

    But the accused did not sign. And he was meet the eight years. During the war, he was added another five years. Ermolaev worked in the most difficult places of the European North.

    The route of Vorkuta railway he built during the war by wounded and frostbitten hands.

    But here, devoid of name and the past prisoner remained an experienced worker and an expert on the North. Polar explorer Ermolaev suggested an original method of laying of rails and sleepers in the permafrost.

    This gave an economic effect that happily camp's authorities petitioned to the highest authorities to reduce his stretch by two years.


    Baffin Island. Arctic

    Baffin Island. Arctic

    picture from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE), 1970–1977


    [TOP]

    After the discharge of the camps and the complete rehabilitation Mikhael did not return to glaciology. He became a doctor of geological-mineralogical sciences, organized in Kaliningrad University the only one in country the Department of Geography of the Oceans and taught for many years on it.

    After retirement, Mikhael Ermolaev returned to Leningrad..."


  • Pavel V. Wittenberg, geologist, professor was arrested in 1930. He was sent to the ten years "from Siberia to Siberia - in the Arctic, where Wittenburg began to work even before the revolution.
  • In the twenties Wittenberg investigated the structure and mineral resources of the Novaya Zemlya (New Land) and Vaigach, Northern Yakutia and Taimyr. The "reward" was a labour work in the mines at the same Vaigach.

    Fortunately, Pavel V. Wittenberg survived and waited for full rehabilitation.


  • Vladimir Cherepanov fired from the Institute of Arctic Geology and subsequently died from a heart attack.

  • Michael F. Zyablov - geologist. At the time of arrest Michael served as chief of the expedition "Glavsevmorputi". Michael was arrested in Moscow in late 1938 (November?).

  • Once again, remembered and mentioned all those,
    with whom we have been for many years in the Arctic.
    The bright memory of those who have not.
    Many thanks and best wishes to those who are still alive.
    One of the Russian geological geophysical dynasties
    N.N. Rzhevskyi, June, 2010

    The

    The High-Polar Ice Base of the Airborne Geophysical Expedition
    of the Institute of Arctic Geology, in the western part of the East Siberian Sea, 60th.

    Hi Svetlana: The picture shows the boat, geophysicists (me and Garik), and in the background
    stands, it seems, a handyman. Helicopter probably landed, flying at high-latitude
    (security-guarded) Ice Base of the Military Navy of the USSR. ...
    ... The boat was hauled to the north from Petersburg a special flight - for the ice base.

    ... Once again, remembered and mentioned all those,
    with whom we have been for many years in the Arctic.
    The bright memory of those who have not.
    Many thanks and best wishes to those who are still alive.

    courtesy of N.N. Rzhevskyi, a member of the International Federation of Russian writers
    One Hundred Years of Geological Dynasty (rus)


    [TOP]


     

    Soviet coal mining on Svalbard in the 20-ies

    Map of the Arctic
    Map of the Arctic

    picture from the Great Soviet
    Encyclopedia, 1970–1977

    In 20-ies coal was mining in Svalbard. Successfully worked the Russia's first mine "Grumant" (Russian: Грумант), which was owned by joint-stock company "English-Russian Grumant" (Russian: "Англо-русский Грумант") established by businessman Nakhimson, who emigrated from Russia.

    On June 12, 1931 it was signed an agreement to purchase of shares of the "English-Russian Grumant", and one coal deposit, consisting of eight plots of land with total area of 80 square kilometers, came under the state ownership of the USSR.

    In October 07, 1931, on the basis of the decision of the Soviets of People's Commissars of the USSR, was organized the trust "Arktikugol" (Russian: Арктикуголь) and approved its statute.

    One of the first leaders of the trust was
    Michael E. Plisetskiy - the father of the world-famous ballerina. Soviet coal mining on Svalbard began in 1932.

    Michael E. Plisetskiy was a good friend of Rudolf Samoilovich. Every year the mines on the Norwegian archipelago were given more and more coal, the same coal deposits which opened in 1912 by the another famous polar explorer Vladimir Alexandrovich Rusanov and his assistant, a young mining engineer Rudolf Samoilovich. The Soviet "capital" of Spitsbergen the town Barentsburg turned into a mining village, where there was an opera circle, which put on the amateur scene "Mermaid" by Dargomyzhsky. In the role of the Mermaid was Plisetskiy'a eight years daughter. It was the debut of Maya Plisetskaya.

    Michael E. Plisetskiy the general consul in Svalbard, managing employee of the "Arktikugol", head of the Soviet Coal Concessions on island Svalbard (Trust "Arktikugol" on Spitsbergen), arrested and shot in 1938.

    The Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State Trust "Arktikugol" is engaged in coal mining on Svalbard today.


    Hummock. Arctic Zone

    Hummock. Arctic Zone

    picture from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE), 1970–1977




    We are not done yet...

    [TOP]


     

    The Editor of the Geological Map of the Asian Arctic, Arctic Section of the XVII International Geological Congress, 1937

    The publication by the Arctic Institute of an Atlas of the Arctic,
    containing 300 maps, was planned for 1948. This work
    should be a major contribution to knowledge of the Arctic.
    William Mandel, "Arctic" VOL. 3, NO. I

    Mikhael Mikhailovich Ermolaev
    Mikhael Mikhailovich Ermolaev

    editor of the Geological Map of the Asian
    Arctic, Arctic Section of the XVII
    International Geological Congress, 1937

    Arrested on the night of July 6, 1938

    the following is
    from five sources (citations):

    V.S. Koryakin Doctor of Geographical Sciences
    "For Grandsons the Aide Tidings"
    Moscow

    Zinovy Kanevsky
    Mysteries and Tragedy in the Arctic
    M., KNOWLEDGE, 1991

    lteam of authors:
    Ministry of Natural Resources RF,
    NIA-Priroda, REFIA

    VNIIOkeangeologiya
    team of authors:
    On the Way to Bedrock in the Arctic.
    Issue 1. Ministry of Natural Resources RF
    All-Russian Scientific Institute
    Geology and Mineral Resources
    Oceans behalf I.S. Gramberg
    St. Petersburg, 2003. p. 201.

    L.P. Belyakov, candidate of geological-mineralogical sciences:
    The Camp System and Political Repression (1918-1953) In:
    Repressed geologists. M.-SPb.: VSEGEI, 1999, pp. 385-391


    "... One of the chapters of the book, "In Leningrad," tells us about the state of the Arctic Science on the eve of the events in 1937. In its first part there is deals with the preparations for the XVII International Geological Congress in Moscow.

    Ermolaev acted on it with a presentation on geological mapping of the Arctic in scale 1:2.5 million.

    Appearance of such maps, which the editor himself was Ermolaev, meant entering a new scientific frontier for the first time since the Rusanov - now a fundamentally new basis for further geological studies and mineral prospecting in the polar region.

    The authors of the book somehow missed that information [about M.M. Ermolaev] ... "


    the editor of the Geological Map of the Asian Arctic,
    Arctic Section of the XVII IGC (1937)
    remains a nameless person for geological community ...


    Atlas of the Arctic. General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography. Moscow, 1985

    Atlas of the Arctic

    General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography
    Moscow, 1985



    Geological Map of the Arctic. Atlas of the Arctic. General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography. Moscow, 1985

    Geological Map of the Arctic

    Atlas of the Arctic

    General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography
    Moscow, 1985


    [TOP]

    " ... In the autumn of 1938 [probably a misprint - in autumn 1936 (?)] an employee VAI (All-Union Arctic Institute, the current Arctic and Antarctic Institute in Leningrad) M.M. Ermolaev was appointed as a scientific secretary of the Arctic Section of the XVII International Geological Congress (1937), and he began to prepare a rich collection of geological books and maps of the Arctic Institute for submission to the Arctic section of the XVII IG Congress.

    In June 1937 Mikhael Ermolaev made at the section IGC as editor of the Geological Map of the Asian Arctic and the first time outlined its tectonic zoning. ..."

    " ... At the end of July 1937 the third high-latitude expedition of VAI on "Sadko" proceeded to study the northern part of the Laptev Sea. During the studies on "Sadko", Mikhael Ermolaev came to the genetic classification of sediments of the Arctic seas of Eurasia on their chemical composition. ... "


    Tectonic Map of the Arctic from the Physical and Geographical Atlas of the World (1964) Simplified Tectonic Map of the Arctic compiled at the Geological Institute of the USSR based on the Tectonic Map of the Arctic scale of 1:10 000 000 (1963) edited by M. Muratov and A. Yanshin. Map compiled by the Scientific Editorial Cartography Office of the Main Administration of the Geodesy and Cartography at the USSR GGC on the copyright layout. Editor-cartographer N. Fetisova

    Tectonic Map of the Arctic
    from the Physical and Geographical Atlas of the World (1964)

    Simplified Tectonic Map of the Arctic
    compiled at the Geological Institute of the USSR
    based on the Tectonic Map of the Arctic scale of 1:10 000 000 (1963)
    edited by M. Muratov and A. Yanshin.
    map compiled by the Scientific Editorial Cartography Office
    of the Main Administration of the Geodesy and Cartography
    at the USSR GGC on the copyright layout.
    Editor-cartographer N. Fetisova


    [TOP]

    Meanwhile, on the mainland ...

    "In 1937 - was opened the Arctic and Antarctic Museum in St. Petersburg"

    "... Wreckers were found in Leningrad Institute of Peoples of the North, and ... in the recreation park named after Maxim Gorky, in which was exhibition prepared by staff of the Arctic Institute exhibition. On it, in particular, exhibited all kinds of maps, models, diagrams, and numerous examples of minerals. [Apparently this is talking about the exhibition prepared for the 17th IGC, 1937]

    Hit the "negligent" organizers of the exhibition, the journal "Sovetskaya Arktika" angrily cried out: "We should be able to keep state secrets, protect it from saboteurs, Trotsky-Bukharin spies!".

    It turns out, "joining" the Arctic Institute, they blew the whole world about the discoveries, paraded minerals and rocks "for the develops of a speculative nature, to create a name and prestige of scientists." The group enjoyed unlimited support and protection from the Director of VAI Samoilovich" . At the same time became an ominous hint that agents infiltrated in the Northern Sea Route Administration (NSRA), "hide the natural wealths of the Arctic from the motherland" ... "


    Giperglobus - Northern Hemisphere of the Earth and Arctica is made by a large group of employees, RAS (Moscow)

    Northern Hemisphere of the Earth and Arctica
    is made by a large group of employees, RAS (Moscow)

    factual material is the property of post-Soviet people

    GIS Department Website - Information Council of the
    Department of Geolgy,Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Mining
    copyright Vernadsky State Geological Museum, RAS
    http://www.sgm.ru/eng/science/gbd/index.html


    [TOP]

    Meanwhile, in the Arctic ...

    On October 15, "Sadko" actively fought his way through the ice of the Laptev Sea, providing assistance to "Sedov" and "Malygin". ... Samoilovich persistently referred to the Office of the NSRA that it is need to break through the Bering Strait and complete the expedition in Vladivostok. But the positive response came only when this variant was not feasible ... Ice conditions deteriorated sharply and the 23rd October, all three ships had frozen completely.

    In total at the end of navigation - in autumn 1937 at the Northern Sea Route was frozen 21 vessels. But the NSRA was charged with "useless staffing, has created a favorable climate for anti-Soviet activities wreckers ...". There were 217 people on three ships. During the drifting continued geomagnetic, gravimetric, hydrological, hydrobiological and, of course, marine geological research. ...


    Map of the Arctic Meteorological Research. Atlas of the Arctic. General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography. Moscow, 1985

    Map of the Arctic Meteorological Research

    Atlas of the Arctic

    General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography
    Moscow, 1985


    [TOP]

    In late March of 1938 Samoilovich received orders from Moscow to evacuate from ships 183 people, including himself, by the aircrafts because "the interests of the Arctic Institute require urgent to stay there" (Samoilovich's manuscript. Report, 1938). ... For evacuation of large number of staff in the NSRA was created an entire air expedition and during April 1938 on four planes landed on the runway, cleared by winterers of the "Camp of Three Ships".

    Upon returning from "Sadko" June 23, 1938 Mikhael Mikhailovich was immediately dismissed from the Arctic Institute, allegedly in connection with the "reduction of the cameral materials".

    ... Ermolaev has been arrested on the night of July 6, 1938, in his apartment on Kamennoostrovsky prospect on the order of the Leningrad NKVD.

    Ermolaev's apartment was searched. It was seized also his doctoral thesis (manuscript "The Glaciation of New Earth"), which disappeared for ever in the" bodies".


    mapping arctic waters is taking too long: ice experts

    mapping arctic waters is taking too long: ice experts


    The first Soviet drifting station «North Pole» in the drifting research expedition of Glavsevmorputi (aka Northern Sea Route,  the NSRA) in 1937

    The first Soviet drifting station «North Pole»
    during the drifting research expedition of Glavsevmorputi
    (aka Northern Sea Route, the NSRA)
    1937


    [TOP]

    J.M. Pushcharovsky
    SOME COMMON PROBLEMS TECTONICS IN THE ARCTIC
    Report to the General Meeting of the Division of Geological and Geographical Sciences
    of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR
    February 24, 1960

    In 1959, the Geological Institute of the USSR compiled Tectonic Map of the Arctic in color, which was made in polar map projection in scale 1:7 000 000.

    Geological study of the Arctic is not uniform. In general we can say that the Soviet sector of its already been investigated thoroughly. Much of the credit in this respect, among many groups of the country belongs to the researchers of the Institute of Arctic Geology, which recently has been drawn sightseeing geological map of the northern territories of the USSR [Geological ..., 1957], summarized a large amount of factual material.

    Detailed and important papers on the geology of the Arctic regions are made by Finnish, Swedish (Karta ..., 1958) and the Norwegian geologists (Holtedal, 1958; Holtedahl, 1929). In recent years a number of interesting papers on the tectonics and maps of Greenland (Fränkl, 1955b, 1956;, Haller, 1956a, b; Peacock, 1958; Sommer, 1957, etc.), Canada (Geological ..., 1955; Tectonic ..., 1950) and Alaska (Amand, 1957; Smith, 1939 and others).

    It is very important for understanding the structure of the crust in the Arctic have data on the topography of its maritime and oceanic spaces.

    One of the most important achievements in this area is the discovery of Soviet researchers a huge underwater Lomonosov Ridge, extending from the New Siberian Islands in the North Pole to the islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    The latest bathymetric map of the Arctic recently published A.F. Treshnikov (1960).

    The following is another Tectonic Map of the Arctic wich was compiled under the editorship of N.S. Shatsky.


    In 1959, the Geological Institute of the USSR compiled  Tectonic Map of the Arctic in color, which was made in polar map projection in scale 1:7 000 000.

    Tectonic Map of the Arctic
    compiled under the editorship of N.S. Shatsky

    source: J.M. Pushcharovsky
    SOME COMMON PROBLEMS TECTONICS IN THE ARCTIC
    Report to the General Meeting of the Division of Geological and Geographical Sciences
    of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR
    February 24, 1960


    [TOP]

    please, be careful during the using of
    "Russian" geological information
    in your "new" compilations ...


    On 2009 by Geological Survey of Canada, GSC): "The new "Geological Map of the Arctic", which was recently released by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), began as a Russian proposal, submitted in July 2003, for the international consideration of an Atlas...

    Tom Spears, Ottawa CitizenMay 7, 2009 - www.canada.com: "For instance, a classic Russian (geology) map shows age and nothing else. It will tell you something is Ordovician, but it won't say if it's limestone or granite." First comprehensive atlas maps riches of Arctic.

    Please, be careful during the using of "Russian" geological information in your "new" compilations ...

    Somebody of the officials of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, or probably someone from the Russian Academy of Sciences, or perhaps someone of the "former weapons (FW) scientists" has supplied you, guys, with the old version of geologic map from the Soviet Encyclopedia, in which there are maps for children ...

    You are not the first and nor the last in these common games of the post-Soviet bosses ...


    "For instance, a classic Russian (geology) map shows age and nothing else.
    It will tell you something is Ordovician, but it won't say if it's limestone or granite."
    First comprehensive atlas maps riches of Arctic
    By Tom Spears, Ottawa Citizen, May 7, 2009

    The New Geological Map of the Arctic: Canada leads the way - www.adventurecanada.com

    The New Geological Map of the Arctic: Canada leads the way


    First comprehensive atlas maps riches of Arctic
    By Tom Spears, Ottawa Citizen, May 7, 2009



    - Светлана, русские геологи не знают легенду
    собственных геологических карт...
    - А Вы уверены, что ЭТО были геологи?
    ответ на недоумение участника совместных с РФ
    карто-составительских работ по Арктике
    Канада, 2009 год

    Информация о геологическом строении провинции - отдельного района - конкретного участка - доступна любому желающему.

    Geological map of the Arctic
    Harrison, J C; St-Onge, M R; Petrov, O; Strelnikov, S;
    Lopatin, B; Wilson, F; Tella, S; Paul, D; Lynds, T;
    Shokalsky, S; Hults, C; Bergman, S; Jepsen, H F; Solli, A,
    2008
    Geological Survey of Canada, Open File, 5816

    здесь можно загрузить геологическую карту Арктики с официального сайта GSC
    http://apps1.gdr.nrcan.gc.ca/mirage/mirage_list_e.php?id=225705


    [TOP]


     

    Hydrographic Office of the NSRA in the 1948

    So-called "Trial of the Hydrographic Office of the NSRA" - the leading professionals the Hydrographic Office, with headed by Pavel Vladimirovich Orlovsky, were arrested almost completely.

  • Pavel K. Hmyznikov was arrested by one of latter, 28 May 1938.

  • Yakov Ya. Gakkel - was a Soviet oceanographer, doctor of geographical sciences (1950), professor, director of the geography department of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute

    Yakov Ya. Gakkel was the first one to create a bathymetric map of the Arctic basin

    Yakov Yakovlevich Gakkel,
    oceanographer, director of the geography department of the
    Arctic Research Institute

    photo from KCTS-2009, Canada

    Yakov Yakovlevich Gakkel,
    doctor of geographical sciences (1950),
    professor, was the first one to create
    a bathymetric map of the Arctic basin

    photo from KCTS-2009, Canada


    [TOP]

  • Yakov Ya. Gakkel, one of the chelyuskinets, miraculously survived during Stalin's repressions. Yakov Yakovlevich Gakkel participated in numerous Arctic expeditions, including the ones on icebreakers Sibiryakov (1932) and Chelyuskin (1934). He was the first one to create a bathymetric map of the Arctic basin.
  • The Gakkel Ridge (formerly known as the Nansen Cordillera and Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge) is a mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is located in the Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Siberia with a length of about 1,800 kilometers. Geologically, it connects the northern end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Laptev Sea Rift.


    Yakov Yakovlevich Gakkel participated in numerous Arctic expeditions

    In 1966, one of the mid-oceanic ridges was named after Yakov Gakkel

    Yakov Yakovlevich Gakkel participated in numerous Arctic expeditions

    photo from KCTS-2009, Canada

    In 1966, one of the mid-oceanic ridges was named after Yakov Gakkel

    photo from KCTS-2009, Canada


    [TOP]

    The existence and approximate location of the Gakkel Ridge was predicted by Soviet polar explorer Yakov Gakkel and discovered by Soviet Arctic Expeditions in the mid 20th century. The Ridge is named after him. The name was approved in April 1987 by the Sub-Committee on Geographical Names and Nomenclature of Ocean Bottom Features (SCGN, now SCUFN).

    The Gakkel Ridge is the slowest spreading ridge on earth with a rate of less than one centimeter per year. Until 1999, the Gakkel Ridge was believed to be non-volcanic; that year, scientists operating from a nuclear submarine discovered active volcanos along this ridge.

    Expedition aircrafts landed on the ice of the Central Arctic, the scientists conducted a set of meteorological and oceanographic observations, and this in April 27, 1948 at coordinates 86º 26' N and 154º 53' E was made a sensational discovery - here, quite close to the North Pole, instead of the expected oceanic depth of 4.5 kilometers, there were only 1,290 meters.


    V.V. Frolov - SOVIET ARCTIC RESEARCH AT THE PRESENT STAGE, 1957

    location of the Soviet observation stations on the drifting ice in 1948-1956
    scheme of article V.V. Frolov
    SOVIET ARCTIC RESEARCH AT THE PRESENT STAGE
    Problems of the Arctic, no.2, 1957, p. 5-18


    [TOP]

    In 2001 two research icebreakers, the German Polarstern and the US Healy, with several groups of scientists, were sent to the Gakkel Ridge to explore the ridge and to collect petrological samples. Among other discoveries, evidence for hydrothermal vents was found during this expedition.

    In 2007 the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution conducted an exploratory expedition called the "Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition" (AGAVE). The expedition made some unexpected discoveries. Pyroclastic volcanic deposits were discovered. The axial valley of the ridge with an area greater than 10 km2 is covered with unconsolidated fragmented pyroclastics. This requires a ten fold increase in volatile pressures over that of normal mid-ocean ridge magmas.


    Route Map of Drifting Stations «SP-1» - «SP-15» by Deryugin K.K. «The Soviet Oceanographic Expeditions» Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1968

    Route Map of Drifting Stations «SP-1» - «SP-15»
    Deryugin K.K. «The Soviet Oceanographic Expeditions»
    Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat,
    1968


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    Soviets launched the station at the South Pole, 1956

    In 1820-1821 a round-the-world expedition led by Faddey Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on sloops Vostok and Mirny discovered the continent of Antarctica.

    When Czar Alexander I authorized an expedition to the south polar region in 1819, the authorities selected Bellingshausen to lead it as an experienced captain and explorer, and a prominent cartographer.

    The expedition was intended to explore the Southern Ocean and to find land in the proximity of the South Pole. The preparation work on the two ships, the 985-ton sloop-of-war Vostok ("East") and the 530-ton support vessel Mirny ("Peaceful") was carried out by Mikhail Lazarev, who had captained his own circumnavigation of the globe before.


    Map of Russian Antarctic Expedition of F. Bellingshausen and M.P. Lazarev in 1819 -1821 years. Arctic and Antarctic Museum in Leningrad. Leningrad, Russia 06.04.1965

    Map of Russian Antarctic Expedition
    of F. Bellingshausen and M.P. Lazarev in 1819 -1821 years.
    Arctic and Antarctic Museum in Leningrad.
    Leningrad, Russia 06.04.1965


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    Bellingshausen became the captain of Vostok, and Lazarev captained Mirny. The journey started from Kronshtadt on 4 June 1819.

    Leaving Portsmouth on 5 September 1819 the expedition crossed the Antarctic Circle (the first to do so since Cook) on 26 January 1820. On 28 January 1820 (New Style) the expedition discovered the Antarctic mainland approaching the Antarctic coast at a point with coordinates 69º21'28"S 2º14'50"W and seeing ice-fields there. The point in question lies within twenty miles of the Antarctic mainland.

    Bellingshausen's diary, his report to the Russian Naval Minister on 21 July 1821 and other documents, available in the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic in Saint Petersburg, Russia, were carefully compared with the log-books of other claimants by the British polar historian A.G.E. Jones in his 1982 study Antarctica Observed.


    Simplified Tectonic Map of Antarctica developed at the Geological Institute of the USSR by N. Bogdanov, and V. Samodurov under the direction of M. Muratov, and edited by A. Yanshin. Tectonic map of Antarctica is made in the Scientific Editorial Cartography Office of the Main Administration of the Geodesy and Cartography at the USSR GGC on the copyright layout. Editor-cartographer D. Zhiv.

    Simplified Tectonic Map of Antarctica
    from physical and geographical atlas of world

    Tectonic Map of Antarctica developed at the Geological Institute of the USSR
    by N. Bogdanov, and V. Samodurov under the direction
    of M. Muratov, and edited by A. Yanshin.
    Tectonic Map of Antarctica is made in the
    Scientific Editorial Cartography Office
    of the Main Administration of the Geodesy and Cartography
    at the USSR GGC on the copyright layout.
    Editor-cartographer D. Zhiv.


    [TOP]

    Jones concluded that Bellingshausen, rather than the Royal Navy's Edward Bransfield on 30 January 1820 or the American Nathaniel Palmer on 17 November 1820, was indeed the discoverer of the sought-after Terra Australis.

    During the voyage Bellingshausen also visited Ship Cove in New Zealand, the South Shetland Islands, and discovered and named Peter I, Zavodovski, Leskov and Visokoi Islands, and a peninsula of the Antarctic mainland which he named the Alexander Coast but which has more recently borne the designation of Alexander Island.

    Mikhail Lazarev, captain of Mirny and second-in-command to Bellingshausen during the Antarctic expedition. Bellingshausen and Lazarev managed to twice circumnavigate the continent and never lost each other from view. Thus they disproved Captain Cook's assertion that it was impossible to find land in the southern ice fields. The expedition also made discoveries and observations in the tropical waters of the Pacific Ocean.


    The Second Soviet expedition arrived in Antarctica in December 1956.

    Soviet began to drill a hole in the Antarctic Lake Vostok as early of the 70s in last century, when the subglacial lake has not yet been opened.

    Drilling has been suspended in 1998, when to the relic waters of the Antarctic Lake Vostok was about 130 meters.


    Soviet began to drill a hole in the Antarctic Lake Vostok as early of the 70s in last century, when the subglacial lake has not yet been opened.

    Soviet began to drill a hole in the Antarctic Lake Vostok
    as early of the 70s in last century, when the subglacial lake
    has not yet been opened.
    http://www.itar-tass.com/c12/339656.html


    [TOP]

    The international community has asked does not penetrate into the aqueous layer of the reservoir until the appearance of a special technology, it minimizes the possible contamination.

    This technology was developed in the St. Petersburg Mining Institute in 2003, during the 26th Consultative Meeting Antarctic Treaty, the international community agreed with the Russian proposals.

    Work on the deep drilling have been renewed in 2005.

    In fact, the lake was discovered in 1957 by the Soviet scientist Andrei Kapitsa, but only in the mid-1990s, it was proved that under the glacier, indeed, is an ancient body of water.


    Фактически озеро было открыто в 1957 году советским ученым Андреем Капицей, однако только в середине 1990-х годов было доказано, что под ледником, действительно, находится древний водоем.

    the Antarctic Lake Vostok

    http://focus.ua/foreign/218793/


    [TOP]

    Drilling operations continued for about 15 years, they produced a Polar Marine Geological Expedition in the annual Russian Antarctic expeditions.

    In parallel with the Russians on the study of subglacial reservoirs are working British and American scientists. Americans are working at the ice stream in West Antarctica Uillansa. The British are trying to drill the armor over the Antarctic Lake Ellsworth.


    a flask with the water from Antarctic Lake Vostok

    a flask with the water from Antarctic Lake Vostok


    [TOP]

    Lake Vostok in Antarctica, hidden under a four-kilometer-thick ice, is a unique aquatic ecosystem that has been isolated from the Earth's atmosphere and surface of the biosphere for millions of years. Its study plays an important role in the study of climate change in recent millennia.


    Фактически озеро было открыто в 1957 году советским ученым Андреем Капицей, однако только в середине 1990-х годов было доказано, что под ледником, действительно, находится древний водоем.

    the Antarctic Lake Vostok

    http://teh-nomad.livejournal.com/1186116.html
    http://focus.ua/foreign/218793/


    [TOP]

    "Integration of the results of Soviet and Russian Antarctic expeditions as well as numerous published works yielded important new evidence enabling better understanding of geological structure and tectonic history of the Antarctic region.

    In particular, it appeared possible to develop models of geodynamic evolution of the Antarctic lithosphere prior to breakup of Gondwana supercontinent, and to improve perception of the nature of transition from the Antarctic continent to its modern oceanic surroundings.

    Two major tectonic provinces are recognized within the continent: the Precambrian East Antarctic Craton, which occupies the most of East Antarctica, the Phanerozoic West Antarctic Mobile Belt, lying mainly within West Antarctica and consisting of several fold systems and Cenozoic volcanic province.

    Continental margin is underlain mostly by the rifted, differently stretched, continental crust. The regions with oceanic crust form the outer rim of the area covered by the map.

    There are tectonic reasons to propose, that mineral resources of Antarctica and other Gondwanian continents are similar.

    Those reasons are supported by the ore occurences and real mineragenic provinces established in Antarctica in the process of many years geologic studies."

    G.E. Grikurov, G.L. Leitchenkov, E.N. Kamenev,
    E.V. Mikhalsky, A.V. Golinsky, V.N. Masolov, A.A. Laiba.
    Antarctic tectonic and mineragenic provinces
    "The Arctic and Antarctica" / Editor V. Kotlyakov;
    Research Council to study the Arctic and Antarctic Regions
    of the USSR Academy of Sciences. - Moscow: Nauka, 1965 (ISSN 0134-4781)
    "The Arctic and Antarctica". Issue 2 (36) Ed. Kotlyakov V.M.
    Moscow: Nauka, 2003 - s. 190


    Giperglobus - Southern Hemisphere of the Earth and Antarctica is made by a large group of employees, RAS (Moscow)

    Giperglobus - Southern Hemisphere of the Earth and Antarctica
    is made by a large group of employees, RAS (Moscow)

    factual material is the property of post-Soviet people

    GIS Department Website - Information Council of the
    Department of Geolgy,Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Mining
    copyright Vernadsky State Geological Museum, RAS
    http://www.sgm.ru/eng/science/gbd/index.html


    [TOP]

    "The satellite images received in the second part of XX century for the marginal zone of Antarctic ice sheet is analyzed. These data are classified on 12 Antarctic ice-catchments and are the basis of database on remote sensing of the marginal part of Antarctic Ice Sheet, that is the actual task, all the projects for studing of Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    The detailed study has been carried out for King George Island ice cap - the largest from ice caps of South Shetland Islands. According to the aerial-photo and satellite images of visible range the dynamics of outlet Lange Glacier over the period of 40 years is estimated.

    Based on backscattering parameters of subsurface sequence obtained from radar images two radar glaciological zones: central and peripheral which well correlated with accumulation and ablation areas and ELA position in the late summer of 1995/96 are picked out.

    Fulfilled studies show the perspectives of remote sensing monitoring of the Antarctic Ice Sheet margin's dynamics."

    V.M. Kotlyakov, V.G. Zakharov, M.Yu. Moskalevsky.
    The remote sensing of the Antarctic ice sheet margin's dynamics
    "The Arctic and Antarctica" / Editor V. Kotlyakov;
    Research Council to study the Arctic and Antarctic Regions
    of the USSR Academy of Sciences. - Moscow: Nauka, 1965 (ISSN 0134-4781)
    "The Arctic and Antarctica". Issue 2 (36) Ed. Kotlyakov V.M.
    Moscow: Nauka, 2003 - s. 190


    Soviet Geological Map of Antarctica, 1978

    Soviet Geological Map of Antarctica
    1978

    http://jurassic.ru/


    [TOP]

    The Sub-Committee on Antarctic VSEGEI is working to implement the project CGMW "International Tectonic Map of Antarctica 1:10 000 000 scale" , which is scheduled for publication 34th International Geological Congress in Brisbane (Australia, 2012).


    Giperglobus - South Pole is made by a large group of employees, RAS (Moscow)

    Giperglobus - South Pole
    is made by a large group of employees, RAS (Moscow)

    GIS Department Website - Information Council of the
    Department of Geolgy,Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Mining
    сopyright Vernadsky State Geological Museum, RAS


    [TOP]

    This paper is the review of the recent microbiological investigations in the sea-waters and lakes of the Antarctica during the past forty years. The review is considered with the data on the distribution patterns, abundance, biomass and production of the bacterioplankton in the Antarctic Seas and discussed the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the bacteria picked up from sea-waters. The separate part of the review is dedicated to microbiological activity in continental Antarctic freshwater and salt lakes and influence of different environmental factors on water bacteria.

    E.N. Chebotarjov. "Recent state of natural microbiota
    in the terrestrial freshwater and marine ecosystems of the Antarctic"
    "The Arctic and Antarctica" / Editor V. Kotlyakov;
    Research Council to study the Arctic and Antarctic Regions
    of the USSR Academy of Sciences. - Moscow: Nauka, 1965 (ISSN 0134-4781)
    "The Arctic and Antarctica". Issue 2 (36) Ed. Kotlyakov V.M.
    Moscow: Nauka, 2003 - s. 190

    Below is provided the video of opening of the station "Vostok" in the memoirs of the expedition leader Alexei Treshnikov.

    VIDEO: Soviet researchers launched the Vostok station at the South Pole.


    [TOP]


     

    Russia launched 3P Arctic Conference and Exhibition, 2009


    September 30 - October 2, 2009, Moscow, Russia

    The 3P Arctic Conference and Exhibition - Polar Petroleum Potential, 3P Arctic, is a geological/geophysical conference and exhibition focused on the circum-Arctic basins that are within the Russian, Norwegian, Greenlandic (Danish), Canadian and Alaskan onshore and offshore basins.

    AAPG and RosGeo are combining their expertise to provide Arctic explorers with a unique event that will bring the professionals working on these regions together for the first time.

    Hosted in the Moscow Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas by RosGeo, Organized by AAPG & Allworld, With the support of The Council of the Federation Committee on Natural Resources & Environmental Protection, Russia


    Boundary delimitation: Russia eastern Arctic sea boundaries and their relation to continental shelf development by Svetlana Tikhomirova, PhD, Business World, 9 (154-155), Raw-Material Markets Department, August 30 - September 5, 1996, p.1, p.6

    Boundary delimitation: Russia's eastern Arctic sea boundaries and
    their relation to continental shelf development by Svetlana Tikhomirova, PhD,
    Weekly economic review Business World, 9 (154-155)
    Raw-Material Markets Department, August 30 - September 5, 1996, p. 1, p. 6

    At his first press conference the new Minister of Natural Resources - Viktor Orlov said that the MNR RF
    is preparing a geological justification for increasing the shelf zone of Russia in the Arctic Ocean


    [TOP]


     

    Putin in the Arctic - Franz Josef Land, 29.04.2010


    Arctic Forum will be held in Moscow in September 2010 - The Arctic - www.arctic.ru


    "РИАН.Ру": Vladimir Putin visited the archipelago of Franz Josef Land. Prime acquainted with the work of a scientific expedition of the Institute of Ecology and Evolution named after A.N. Severtzov of the Academy of Sciences - the study of the population of polar bears.


    SOME NOTES ON THE SOVIET ARCTIC DURING THE PAST DECADE
    by William Mandel


    Putin visits military exercises on the island of Alexandra Land and military town

    Putin in the Arctic - 29.04.2010, Russia
    The Russian prime minister agreed to pay a visit to the Arctic.
    Putin visits military exercises on the island of Alexandra Land and military town.

    http://eco.rian.ru/ecovideo/20100429/228056735.html


    [TOP]

    Putin drew an attention to the fact that only in the archipelago of Franz Josef Land is up to 60 thousand tons of combustive-lubricating materials, some of which spreads and pollutes the environment. In this regard, he proposed to organize in the Arctic "spring cleaning". To this "cleaning", according to the prime minister, should join other countries with interests in the region.

    He recalled that in accordance with the decision of the Security Council of Russia along the Northern Sea Route should appear 10 stationary points of MES and Hydromet. In the bay of Northern, Premier visited one of the mobile hospital Emergency MES, deployed as part of joint with Frontier FSB exercises in the Arctic, and has visited Russia's most northern frontier "Nagurskoe". Putin inspected the premises and spoke to the commander. At the end of the visit, he took the photos with the soldiers.


    http://eco.rian.ru/ecovideo/20100429/228056735.html

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    Translated by G-to-G



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